When we think about the music of Iran, an artistic and glorious history tells us that although, Iran have faced a number of wars and hot airs of desert but still it maintains to become the land of artistic people. There are a lot of are which came in existence in the Persian years of Iran. In this time the Iranian peoples has produced a great literary heritage, a number of architectural beauties of the world. it does not thrived the Persia but covers the whole world in its influence. Some countries like Spain and Japan are one of them.
The last trace of the ancient and valuable Persian documents of all periods tells us that in Sassanian Period ( A.D. 226-651), the Persian music get an extraordinary and lively impact on Persian life. Some , has left us ample evidence pointing to the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. The names of some important musicians come in existence such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin.
After the dawn of Islamic Civilization in 7th century A.D. the Persian music, as well as other Persian cultural taints became the main and formative element in what has, ever since, been known as "Islamic civilization". We can say that the earlier Persian musicians and musicologist dominated the musical arena of the Eastern Moslem Empire. Some musicians who have scored high in his skills are as Farabi (d. 950), Ebne Sina (d. 1037), Razi (d. 1209), Ormavi (d. 1294), Shirazi (d. 1310), and Maraqi (d. 1432).
We are describing some ages in which music reaches up to the sky. We can say that Music of iran have got very new heights in these periods and gave the best musical scholars to the world.
The 16th century:-
In this period the music of Iran has got the new traditions and dawned under the rule of the Safavid dynasty (1499-1746).
Since the early 20's, once again, Persian music began to find broader dimensions. An urge to create rather than merely perpetuate the known tradition, and an interest to investigate the structural elements, has emerged. Fundamentally, however, what can be still recognized as the national music of Iran [Persia] is the tradition of the past with marked imprints of 19th century performance practices. This traditional or classical music represents a highly ornate and sophisticated art whose protagonists are professional city musicians. Prior to the present century, such musicians were patronized by the nobility. Today, in a progressively modernizing society, they are generally engaged by broad casting and television media. They are also active as teachers both privately and at the various scholars and conservatories of music.
The musical instruments which have been known in the long history of Iran (Persia) are too numerous to name here. The following are those instruments, which are widely used at the present time:
Tar: A plucked string instrument with six strings and a range of two octaves and fifth.
Setar: An instrument related to the tar with the same range, but with four strings. The setar is strummed by the nail of the right index finger.
Ud: The Arabian name for the ancient Persian instrument called barbat. It is also a plucked string instrument with nine to eleven strings. The European lute is a derivative of the ud.
Kamancheh: A bowed instrument with four strings, played in the fashion of the violoncello, but with a size and tone range comparable to the violin.
Santur: A dulcimer played with delicate wooden mallets, with a range exceeding three octaves. Nay: Generic name for numerous verities of flutes.
Tombak: The principal percussion instrument in the Iran[Persian] classical music. It is vase shaped drum open on the narrow and end covered with a tightly stretched skin on the other side.
This was a brief description of Iranian music, and there is a lot to say about the music of Iran.